The National Institute of Health (NIH), USA established the Recombinant Advisory Committee (RAC) in 1974. The application of Biotechnology to solve the environmental problems in the environment and in the ecosystems is called Environmental Biotechnology. Since the time immemorial a number of micro-organisms have been used as part of human diet. This exploitation has increased a lot with the development of biotechnological techniques. In 1997, an American company got patent rights on Basmati rice through the US Patent and Trademark Office. Only introduction of a new gene into the somatic cells is allowed at present. Biotechnology applies the knowledge of biology to enhance and improve the environment, health, and food supply. • Biotechnology is the science which combines biology with technology that is being used rampantly in pharmaceutical sector. A transgenic crop that contains and expresses a transgene (i.e., functional foreign gene). Spirulina is also popular as health food. Production of polygalacturonase was blocked in the transgenic tomato variety ‘Flavr Savr’. biodegradable plastics, vegetable oil, biofuels), and environmental uses. Recombinant proteins can be used for various pharmaceuticals, nutraceuticals and therapeutic purposes. 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Learn more about the diagnostics vertical in India. Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. It is proposed to transfer the brazzein gene into maize and express it in maize grains. The possible defences against bioweapons include use of gas mask, vaccination, administration of specific antibiotics, and decontamination. Proteins are instrumental in all biochemical transformations – transport, transformation, stimulation, regulation, stabilization etc. (iv) When animals are used for production of pharmaceutical proteins, they are virtually reduced to the status of a ‘factory’. Biotechnology is a very broad domain and finds applications in several domains. SCP provides a valuable protein-rich supplement in human diet. rDNA technology has greatly helped to identify criminals by DNA fingerprinting and settle the disputes of parenthood of children. PCR is now usually used to detect HIV in suspected AIDS patients. Bio-patents are awarded for (i) strains of microorganisms, (ii) cell lines, (iii) genetically modified strains of plants and animals, (iv) DNA sequences, (v) the proteins encoded by DNA sequences, (vi) various biotechnological procedures, (vii) production processes, (viii) prod­ucts and (ix) product applications. In Western blotting, protein is identified with the help of labelled antibody probe. This is a case where the transgene product is directly responsible for the production of the phenotype of interest. For example, one patent covers “all transgenic plants of Brassica family”. Vaccines are either attenuated (live but weak) or dead (inert) agents of disease which when administered into a healthy person provide temporary or permanent immunity to that particular disease. The biotechnologists involved in the production of transgenic crops are aware of above mentioned aspects, and efforts are being made to use other genes in place of antibiotic resistance genes. This protein is approximately two thousand times as sweet as sugar. If you continue browsing the site, you agree to the use of cookies on this website. (v) Tularemia (it can occur in humans in two forms: ulceroglandular and typhoidal). Nutraceuticals include isolated nutrients, dietary supplements, diets, genetically engineered designer foods, herbal products, processed products, such as cereals, soups and beverages. Traditional knowledge related to bio-resources is the knowledge developed by various communities from time immemorial, regarding the utilisation of the bio-resources, e.g., use of plants and other organisms in healing art. are complex genetic disorders. These proteins are produced by most body cells on exposure to viruses. Agriculture Industries. (iii) GM food contains the antibiotic resistance gene itself. The interferons (particularly IFN-a) are used on a significant scale for the treatment of hepatitis-B. Consulta nuestra Política de privacidad y nuestras Condiciones de uso para más información. early detection is not possible. The bio-molecules are then patented and used for commercial activities. Report a Violation, Plant Biotechnology: Meaning, Principle and Application of Plant Biotechnology, Applications of Biotechnology in Transgenic Plants and Animals, Genome: Meaning, Revelations and Implications.