However, since Quetzalcoatl's association with a "feathered serpent" constitutes "snake worship," some Christians claim that this association is therefore inconsistent with worship of Jesus Christ. [23] A third story narrates that Chimalman was hit in the womb by an arrow shot by Mixcoatl and nine months later she gave birth to a child which was called Quetzalcoatl. It is also suggested that he was a son of Xochiquetzal and Mixcoatl. This has been questioned by some ethnohistorians, like Matthew Restall, who argues that the Quetzalcoatl-Cortes connection is not found in any document that was created independently of post-Conquest Spanish influence, and that there is little proof of a pre-Hispanic belief in Quetzalcoatl's return. Quetzalcoatl was considered important in the pantheon of Aztec gods. } catch(err) {}. In sculptures adorning temples throughout ancient Mexico, he generally appeared as a plumed serpent, although sometimes he had human features as well. [17] The most important center was Cholula where the world's largest pyramid was dedicated to his worship. Cholula is known to have remained the most important center of worship to Quetzalcoatl, the Aztec/Nahua version of the feathered serpent deity, in the post-classic period. The earliest iconographic depiction of the deity is believed to be found on Stela 19 at the Olmec site of La Venta, depicting a serpent rising up behind a person probably engaged in a shamanic ritual. As the morning star he was known by the title Tlahuizcalpantecuhtli, meaning "lord of the star of the dawn." Among the Aztecs, the name Quetzalcoatl was also a priestly title, as the two most important priests of the Aztec Templo Mayor were called "Quetzalcoatl Tlamacazqui". And when the wind rose, when the dust rumbled, and it crack and there was a great din, became it became dark and the wind blew in many directions, and it thundered; then it was said: "[Quetzalcoatl] is wrathful. Along with other gods, such as Tezcatlipoca and Tlaloc, Quetzalcoatl was called "Ipalnemohuani", a title reserved for the gods directly involved in the creation, which means "by whom we live". Final Fantasy Wiki is a FANDOM Games Community. Members of this confederacy from Tlaxcala, Puebla, and Oaxaca provided the Spaniards with the army that first reclaimed the city of Cholula from its pro-Aztec ruling faction, and ultimately defeated the Aztec capital of Tenochtitlan (Mexico City). [34] This speech, which has been widely referred to, has been a factor in the widespread belief that Moctezuma was addressing Cortés as the returning god Quetzalcoatl. var pageTracker = _gat._getTracker("UA-7775239-1"); Colonial documentary sources from the Maya area frequently speak of the arrival foreigners from the central Mexican plateau often lead by a man whose name translates as "Feathered Serpent", it has been suggested that these stories recall the spread of the feathered serpent cult in the epiclassic and early postclassic periods. Christopher Minster, Ph.D., is a professor at the ​Universidad San Francisco de Quito in Ecuador. To both Teotihuacan and Mayan cultures Venus was in turn also symbolically connected with warfare. The date 9 wind is known to be associated with fertility, venus and war among the Maya and frequently occurs in relation to Quetzalcoatl in other Mesoamerican cultures. Quetzalcoatl—he was the wind, the guide and road sweeper of the rain gods, of the masters of the water, of those who brought rain. The cult of Quetzalcoatl has been more or less idealized, and the image of a "white god" has become part of the popular culture. Animals thought to represent Quetzalcoatl include resplendent quetzals, rattlesnakes (coatl meaning "serpent" in Nahuatl), crows, and macaws. Quetzalcoatl—he was the wind, the guide and road sweeper of the rain gods, of the masters of the water, of those who brought rain. The pantheon of the people of Teotihuacan (200 BCE - 700 CE) also featured a feathered serpent, shown most prominently on the Temple of the Feathered Serpent (dated 150-200 CE). [39] In a 1986 paper for Sunstone, he noted that during the Spanish Conquest, the Native Americans and the Catholic priests who sympathized with them felt pressure to link Native American beliefs with Christianity, thus making the Native Americans seem more human and less savage. The most famous of those rulers was Topiltzin Ce Acatl Quetzalcoatl. Mesoamerican priests and kings would sometimes take the name of a deity they were associated with, so Quetzalcoatl and Kukulcan are also the names of historical persons. Quetzalcoatl's opposite was Tezcatlipoca, who supposedly sent Quetzalcoatl into exile. Subtleties in, and an imperfect scholarly understanding of, high Nahuatl rhetorical style make the exact intent of these comments tricky to ascertain, but Restall argues that Moctezuma's politely offering his throne to Cortés (if indeed he did ever give the speech as reported) may well have been meant as the exact opposite of what it was taken to mean: politeness in Aztec culture was a way to assert dominance and show superiority. Quetzalcoatl was also the patron of the priests and the title of the Aztec high priest. The exact significance and attributes of Quetzalcoatl varied somewhat between civilizations and through history. This reference article is mainly selected from the English Wikipedia with only minor checks and changes (see for details of authors and sources) and is available under the. Quetzalcoatl. [8], In the era following the 16th-century Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire, a number of records conflated Quetzalcoatl with Ce Acatl Topiltzin, a ruler of the mythico-historic city of Tollan. The exact significance and attributes of Quetzalcoatl varied somewhat between civilizations and through history. Based on the iconography of the feathered serpent deity at sites such as Teotihuacan, Xochicalco, Chichen Itza, Tula and Tenochtitlan combined with certain ethnohistorical sources, historian David Carrasco has argued that the preeminent function of the feathered serpent deity throughout Mesoamerican history was as the patron deity of the Urban center, a god of culture and civilization. "[4], The earliest known documentation of the worship of a Feathered Serpent occurs in Teotihuacan in the first century BC or first century AD. The meaning of his local name in other Mesoamerican languages is similar. Usually, our current time was considered the fifth sun, the previous four having been destroyed by flood, fire and the like. Chichen Itza is famous for its Temple of Kukulcán, which was their name for Quetzalcoatl. The Aztec turned him into a symbol of dying and resurrection and a patron of priests. The Nahuatl word quetzalli means "long green feather" (Molina: ), but later came to be applied also to the bird who give these feathers: the Resplendent Quetzal.