Successful scale insect control starts with prevention. All of the tree fruit pests, as well as beneficial insects and natural enemies are listed below. and Petal Fall/Calyx. Crawlers usually settle very close to where they hatched and heavily infested plants have bark crusted with scales. Female crawlers progress through three nymphal instars to become reproductive adults. Quadraspidiotus perniciosus. San Jose scale; Oystershell scale; European fruit lecanium; Leafminers. The scale has dark concentric rings that can be seen under a magnifying glass. Tent caterpillar; Fall webworm; Redhumped caterpillar; Yellownecked caterpillar ; Apple ermine moth; Root-feeding grubs. Scale insects are tiny creatures that hide underneath a protective covering and suck the sap out of leaves. Scientific Name: Quadraspidiotus perniciosus (Comstock) San Jose Scale becomes a nuisance during petal fall, and continues to be a pest until harvest. For additional information, contact your local Texas A&M AgriLife Extension Service agent or search for other state Extension offices. Time Reporting Codes & Earn Codes; City of San José Human Resources Benefits Page; City of San José Pay Plan 2005. Pub. 2005. Weeks, J.A., K.W. Delaying application until green tissue is present often results in poor After inserting their thread-like mouthparts into the plant and feeding for 2 to 3 days, female crawlers secrete their initial scale coverings and never move from that spot. 1995. Carefully examine all nursery trees prior to actual planting. As the insects continue to grow, they build a waxy shell around them that protects from dessication, predators and pesticides. Scale populations increase rapidly in hot dry weather, and females produce more than 300 million offspring each year. Period of Activity No eggs are laid; females bear live young called. Damage: The first signs of infestation include a decline of tree vigor, leaf drop and appearance of sparse yellow foliage, particularly on the terminal growth. Habitat and Food Source(s): Host plants include apple, pear, peach, plums, Osage orange, other fruit trees, shrubs and shade trees. Photo by C. L. Cole. Upper surface of leaves typically near the mid-rib or large veins. When the tape losses its tackiness, replace it. Some features of this website require Javascript to be enabled for best usibility. insects are present, discard trees or exchange for clean trees. Can become heavily infested by scales, especially young citrus trees. After mating, females begin to produce living young, usually at the rate of 9-10 per day. During the growing season, treat when crawlers are first seen and again 7-10 days later. oil before the tree breaks. San Jose scale. Can have noticeable twig and limb dieback due to the injected toxin when scale densities are high. Convergent lady beetle, transverse lady beetle, black lady beetle, WA 38 First Commercial Season Storage & Packing Observations, WA 38 Optimization of Light Interception…, Pear Psylla Management using Reflective Plastic Mulch, Pear Psylla Insecticide Bioassay – Egg Mortality, Pear Psylla Management – Postharvest Sprays, Pear Psylla – Summer Generations Overview and Management, Management of Little Cherry & X-disease for Backyard Producers. All phloem-feeding, honeydew-producing pests have the potential to be tended by ants. Crawler movement begins 4 to 6 weeks after bloom. 1962; Thomas et al. University of California, pest management guidelines - citrus: California red scale and yellow scale. Scouting Notes Male scale insects have smaller, 1/25 inch long oval coverings with a circular, raised dot located near one end. The presence of some species of ants can allow dramatic increases in scale populations due to the protection from predators and parasitoids the scales receive from ants. Common Name: San Jose scale Check each day for lemon-yellow crawlers caught on the tape. By the end of the season, generations are no longer discrete and all stages are present. Synthetic pheromones have shown some possibilities for monitoring and control. Confirm San Jose scale injury by cutting away bark to reveal a reddish discolouration.